POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS OF MONGOLIA
Outline of the population census
Population and housing census serves as the main statistical tool to gather comprehensive information on population and its composition, as well as their living conditions for broad use in socio-economic planning and policy formulation.
Mongolia has organized nine times population censuses, some with housing censuses (Annex 1). The latest census was organized in 2000 collecting much comprehensive population information of Mongolia at the beginning of the 21st century.
Since the first census in 1918, series of censuses were held in 1935, 1944, 1956, 1963, 1969, 1979, 1989, and 2000. The latest 4 censuses were organized along with the housing census. Since Mongolia became a member of COMECON in 1962, it started collaborating tightly with statistical organizations of the member countries, and the censuses in 1969, 1979, and 1989 followed the common principles for conducting population census in COMECON
The 2000 census was the first census organized in transitional economic period of centrally planned economy to market economy. In addition, it was the first census to follow UN principles and guidelines for conducting population and housing census. While the receding housing censuses covered only the counts for housing, the 2000 census was the first to deem the housing conditions.
Before the census in 2000 (since 1918) the socio-economic structure of Mongolia did not require to legislate a law on population and housing census, instead the legislative environments for the censuses were set forward from the Cabinet Ministers. In 2000, the Statistical Law of Mongolia, Acts and Regulations from the Government constituted the main legislative environment for the census.
The 2000 Population census was successfully conducted with no significant trouble, however the following problems were observed:
Organizational structure of the Census
- Acts such as Government Order has some limitations which should be addressed in the next census. Needs of arrangement by Census Law.
- Relates to comparability between censuses. For 2000 the NSO felt it had a convincing argument for making changes it did, but recognized in the process that this involved loss of comparability.
- Lack of budget
- Lack of numbers of trainers of trainees
- Not sufficient use of enumeration area (EA) maps
- The pilot census did not really serve its main purpose mainly because it was conducted when many census questions were still subject to argument and questionnaire was not finalized.
The National Statistical Office of Mongolia will act as the main organizer for the 2010 Population and Housing Census, providing with general methodological and organizational instructions. The National Statistical Office will organize the census with following responsibilities:
- To conduct census with provision of unified management and coordination at the national level;
- To provide professional and methodological assistance to the State Census Committee and its members;
- To draft and discuss decisions of the State Census Committee;
- To prepare for the sessions of the State Census Committee, take session notes, design, publish and disseminate the decisions;
- To develop and approve census questionnaire, methodology, guidelines and recommendations in order to implement the Law on Census; publish and distribute;
- To compile the census results and introduce to the State Census Committee;
- To process and analyze the census data, disseminate the results, and inform public on the results of the census;
- To organize required trainings and advocacy activities; and
- Other obligations vested by Law or the State Census Committee;
In accordance with the law, NSO set up the Population and Housing Census Bureau within the Population and Social Statistics Department in second quarter of 2008. The Population and Social Statistics Department shall perform the following functions through its Census Bureau:
- Develop a general plan including all activities of the census;
- Provide professional, technical, and methodological guidance to the stakeholders of the census;
- Organize the entire census conducting, data collecting and processing, analyzing, and disseminating process;
- Compile the results and present; and
- Other responsibilities stated in No.2 of Article 12 of the Law on Population and Housing Census;
According to the Law on Population and Housing Census of Mongolia, organizational structure for the Census is as follows: The State Census Committee, National Statistical Office, local census boards at Aimag, Capital city, Soum, Districts and other census conducting state central administrative organizations, and their temporary census bureaus.
According to the Law on Population and Housing Census, the State Census Committee will establish local Census Boards in the Capital city and all Aimags, Soums, and Districts.
The State Census Committee has the following responsibilities:
Composition of the State Census Committee:
- To provide with guidance and coordination at all level of census phases.
- To provide with overall coordination between different stakeholders;
- To ensure that the required budget for the census is properly included in the state annual budgets and approved; and other powers stated in No. 5 of Article 13 of the Law on Population and Housing Census.
The Chairman of the Committee: The Prime Minister of Mongolia
Deputy Chairman: Chairman of the National Statistical Office
Chief, Cabinet Secretary
Members: Minister for Finance
Minister for Justice
Minister for Foreign Relations
Minister for Defense
Minister for Road, Transportation, Construction and Urban development
Minister for Education, Culture and Sciences
Minister for Social Welfare and Labor
Minister for Health
UB City Mayor
Head, General Police Department
Head, State Center for Civil Registration and Information Office
Secretary: Qualified candidate recruited according to Act 13.4 of the Law on Population and Housing Census
According to No.1 of Article 15 of the Law on Population and Housing Census, the following state central administrative organizations shall participate in carrying out the census:
- State central administrative organization responsible for foreign affairs of Mongolia (Ministry of Foreign Relations)
- State central administrative organization responsible for legal matters of Mongolia (Ministry of Justice and Internal Affairs)
- State central administrative organization responsible for defense matters of Mongolia (Ministry of Defense)
State central administrative organizations responsible of co-organizing the census could establish temporary census bureaus within their structures and the compositions should be approved by the Government member in charge of associated affairs.
When establishing the census boards, representatives from all associated organizations responsible of coordinating census activities at certain level should be included within its compositions. Terms of reference of the census boards are as approved from the State Census Committee, and are as follows:
- To organize population and housing census data collecting in their respective territories in accordance with the procedure rules;
- To recruit contractual staff, organize necessary trainings, and provide performance evaluation;
- To provide organizational support in producing enumeration area mapping and establishing its boundaries;
- To perform duties given by the State Census Committee and the National Statistical Office; and other duties;
- To ensure the preparatory activities and conduct necessary trainings and to undertake the census effectively on time according to the plan;
- To conduct effective publicity and advocacy activities at local level in accordance with the general census plan;
- To ensure that the required census operation budget is properly reflected in the 2009-2010 annual budget for the organization according to the No.5 of Chapter 6 of the Law on Population and Housing Census;
- To discuss and approve of the respective census results and deliver to higher level administrative organizations; and
- To write a report on how the census undertaking organized and progressed.
Temporary bureaus will be established next to the census boards, responsible of providing necessary methodological and professional supports to the board. The local temporary bureaus will be set up within the structure of the capital city, aimag, district, and soum statistical departments and divisions. The staff in-charge of the temporary bureau will be contracted for six months between 1 December 2009 and 1 May 2010.
Local temporary bureaus will operate with staff of 3-6 (recruited or re-assigned from the statistical departments or divisions). Responsibilities of local temporary bureaus are:
- To provide support on first-level administration unit mapping operations and to co-operate;
- To ensure preparatory activities for local trainings and to co-organize the trainings;
- To promote and advocate about the importance of census to households and people in localities;
- To complete household pre-listing one month prior to the census; and
- To carry out the enumeration process with full coverage with no duplication or omission; and to compile and report daily progress to the upper-level census board.
Enumerators and supervisors will be selected by the Soum and District census boards. General requirements to select enumerators and supervisors:
- Able to work full-time;
- Education of high school or higher level;
- Neat and clear hand-writing skills;
- Good communication skills;
- Prior experiences in working for population or livestock census, election, or other public activities and surveys;
Enumerators and supervisors qualified above listed requirements will be considered on priority basis.
Features of the 2010 Population and Housing Census
The 2010 Population and Housing Census will have a non-transferable reference time.
The moment of census is 00.00 hour Ulaanbaatar time on November 11, 2010 as approved by the Parliament of Mongolia.
Enumeration process will be carried out in the same period of time across the country starting from 8:00 AM local time on November 11, 2010 until 12:00 AM November 18, 2010 for one week.
According to Article 10 of the Law on Population and Housing Census, the following enumeration units shall be covered in the census.
1. In the population census:
- Citizens of Mongolian who are residing within the territory of Mongolia;
- Foreigners and stateless persons who are residing in Mongolia for more than 183 days, or who have taken permissions to stay for over 6 months in Mongolia from competent organizations;
- Citizens of Mongolia and their family members who are residing in abroad at the diplomatic representative offices, consulates and in the international organizations;
- Citizens of Mongolia who are temporarily absent from Mongolia due to work, study and stay in abroad by personal reasons;
2. In the housing census, all sorts of housing units that were resided during the Census:
- All types of gers;
- Public living quarters;
- Nonresidential living quarters and other places.
Canvassing method will be used in the census operation which means enumerators visit house to house to interview each individual in every household along with their housing conditions. Moreover, activities to report and register individuals live in residence halls and dormitories, as well as those live in rooftops, staircases, tunnels, caves, and mountains will be organized prior to the actual census at the temporary local census bureaus in order to increase the whole coverage.
The following guidelines will be followed in the census operation:
1. Local census boards enumerators will count:
- All citizens of Mongolia including permanently living, temporary living, and temporary absent except for soldiers and prisoners;
- Foreign citizens, stateless persons living for more than 183 days or have taken permissions to stay for more than 183 days from competent organizations;
- Mongolian citizens living abroad will be counted in their respective households as temporarily absent irrespective of duration of stay, except those on diplomatic duties, working in Mongolian Embassies, Consulate Offices and international organizations and their family members.
2. The Ministry of Foreign Relations will count:
- Mongolian citizens who are on diplomatic duties, working in Mongolian Embassies, Consulate Offices and international organizations and their family members.
3. The Ministry of Justice will count:
- Soldiers serving in internal and border armies, and prisoners and detainees.
4. The Ministry of Defense will count:
- Soldiers serving in Mongolian Army.
In order to prove census participation, enumeration card will be given to each individual. If an individual is going to abroad for personal or work reasons, she/he should be enumerated prior to the departure.
The 2010 Population and Housing Census have the following main phases:
- Preparatory phase (June 2008 - November 2010)
- Enumeration phase (November 2010)
- Census data processing phase (November 2010 - July 2011)
- Post census evaluation phase (November 2010 - August 2011)
- Census data analysis phase (July 2011- December 2012)
- Developing census database and disseminating phase (March 2010 - March 2012/
The 2010 Population and Housing Census questionnaire forms developed in several different ways. During the Pilot Census, possible varieties tested in order to define the main form. The National Statistical Office approved of the 2010 Census questionnaire form based on the results and reports from the Pilot Census.
The UN Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Census has the main guidelines in developing the questionnaire form; however considering the national needs will be the priority importance. Moreover, census questionnaire aims to include topics not covered in other statistical reports and sample surveys.
According to Law of Census the following major indicators will be collected by the census.
1. Demographic and social indicators:
- clan name, surname and name,
- date of birth,
- age and sex,
- education and literacy,
2. Geographic and migration data
- place of birth,
- place of usual residence and residence on census days,
- duration of residence,
- place of residence five years ago from the census period,
3. Economic indicators
- employment status,
- types of industry,
- unemployment and its reasons,
4. Data on housing conditions
- type and ownership of dwelling,
- number of rooms and floor space,
- water supply, bathroom and shower,
- waste disposal, toilet
- electricity, heating and telephone/communication
Following classifications and codes will be used in developing census questionnaire.
- Administrative unit codes of Mongolia;
- Classifications codes of cities and villages of Mongolia;
- Country codes of the world;
- Religion classification codes;
- Ethnicity and nationality classification codes;
- Education level classification codes;
- Standard employment status classification codes
- Standard occupational classification codes;
- Standard industrial classification of all economic activities;
The following trainings will be conducted in stages of different census phases of preparation, data processing and evaluation.
- Seminars for members of the State Census Committee;
- Trainings for head of the census boards;
- Trainings for staff of local temporary bureaus;
- Trainers trainings;
- Enumerators and supervisors¡¦ trainings
- Trainings for coding operators, data entry operators and scanning operators;
- Meetings and seminars for press media staff;
- Trainings for Geographical Information System (GIS) staff;
- Trainings for GPS operators;
- Trainings for staff of Mongolian Embassies in foreign countries co-operating in the census activity;
- Trainings for staff of the Population and Housing Census Bureau of the NSO;
The population and housing census advocacy activities will consist of three main parts.
a) Advocacy for census data users;
Providing census data users with necessary information about census questionnaire and definitions used is an important activity need to be done in the beginning of the census preparatory phase. By doing that successfully, it will be possible to collect raw data necessary and therefore develop information database that meets the users¡¦ needs within the scope of resources available.
In term of reference, there are the Government and its ministries and agencies, local administrative organizations, universities, institutes and research groups, NGOs, private companies, individuals as well as foreign partners.
Various advocacy activities will be carried out according to user¡¦s different needs. The census data will have essential attributes in coordination of regional development; hence the advocacy activities for local users will be organized in separate strategy.
During the advocacy, range of activities will be organized including meetings, seminars, interviews, paper feedbacks and others. News about census operation in Mongolia will be posted on official webpage of the 2010 World Population and Housing Census Programme for international view.
b) Advocacy for census operation participating organizations and individuals;
To ensure the preparedness for the census and carry out the whole operation successfully during enumeration and post census phases, it is necessary to increase the involvement of government and non-government organizations and therefore conduct necessary trainings to provide essential information. Partnership agreements will be made between the National statistical office and participating government or non-government organizations, individuals, foreign or domestic donors in order to ensure the consistency.
c) Advocacy for public;
It is crucial to provide the public with information and news updates about the Census. Publishing and broadcasting census updates via mass media, airing paid advocacy advertisement, conducting interviews among higher officials, introducing census logo, organizing seminars among students and youth, and other activities will be carried out. Population and Housing Census webpage linked to the NSO website will be developed and updated information about census will be displayed.
Objectives of the advocacy for the public will be as follows:
1. Advertise about the importance of the census;
2. Explain about the topics covered in census questionnaire and provide instructions on how to respond;
3. Increase the census coverage and ensure the completeness;
4. Advocate about the importance of participating in the census;
5. Ensure the accuracy of information;
Advocacy will be a vital part of each census phase; therefore the activities should be strongly associated to the major phase activities. Plan for detailed advocacy activities will be developed and could be carried out by an independent professional organization.
The Population and Housing Census Bureau will execute documenting of all stages census related activities to develop census references. A full report on the 2010 census will be produced and published from the Census Bureau.
International and national experts will be hired to provide necessary consulting on professional and methodological support for the Population and Housing Census.
Performing enumeration process according to enumeration area mapping for each enumerator will ensure the full coverage avoiding any pass over or duplication.
Use of digital mapping in census makes it easier to do spatial coordination and maintain its flexibility, to make analysis on census results, and, to visualize census results at the smallest administrative unit level during dissemination phase, and to obtain results not available to visualize from tabulation, deliver monographs in better and easier to understand format to the users.
Geographical Information System (GIS) will be developed and employed in the enumeration process, results analyzing and disseminating process. In order to develop enumeration areas, bagh, khoroo boundaries will be sketched by local staff and digitized afterwards.
Enumeration areas will be developed on the basis of bagh, khoroo population and household numbers in order to equally allocate the labor for enumerators and supervisors.
GPS (Global Positioning System) will be utilized to take waypoints of every household and the information will be later on linked to GIS for correlation of spatial database and digital mapping. If the funding for GPS is not supported, the household waypoints will not be taken.
Common Economic Cooperation